Texas Senate passes bill to allow people to vote on whether a city can annex them

The measure would allow citizens targeted by annexation to vote on city proposals. A similar bill died in the final moments of regular session debate.


No filibuster was going to kill annexation reform in the Texas Senate this time around. 

The Senate on Wednesday tentatively passed Senate Bill 6, which would allow residents of areas up for possible annexation by cities to hold a referendum on whether the annexation can go through. The bill passed on a vote of 19-12. If it gets final approval from the Senate, it will head to the House. 

“This is taxation without representation," Donna Campbell, R-New Braunfels, who wrote SB 6, said of current state annexation laws. "This is not what Texas or America is about  — we were founded on the right to determine who governs us.” 

Under current law, a city can annex a territory within its extraterritorial jurisdiction without the support of the people who would be annexed. Backers of annexation reform say allowing people to vote on where they live is a fundamental American right. Detractors say allowing citizens to vote on annexation hurts a city’s ability to plan for expansion in a rapidly growing Texas.

The special session legislation is similar to a regular-session bill that died on the Senate floor in an 11th-hour filibuster by Democratic Sen. José Menéndez over concerns that the bill had no protections for land use around military bases.

As the Senate debated SB 6 Wednesday, it was clear neither Menéndez nor Campbell had forgotten the filibuster.

"The last time I yielded to you it did not go quite as I expected," Campbell said before she gave the floor to Menéndez to ask questions about the legislation. 

Just before the vote, Menéndez all but threatened another filibuster. 

“We still have plenty of time in the special session," he said. "Maybe we’ll get down to the last few days, and we’ll get to have a little longer conversation.”

Menéndez's home city of San Antonio, which in June officially branded itself Military City USA, is home to numerous military bases, and local officials say that without annexation or some similar tool, developers can build within a city’s extraterritorial jurisdiction in a way that might compromise a base’s mission. It’s hard to effectively train sharpshooters with residential apartments next door, they argue.

“Annexation is the only tool that we have to protect those bases,” Menéndez said Wednesday.

But in a fiery floor speech, Campbell said she doesn’t buy the military base argument. She argued that cities have other regulatory tools that allow them to manage development around military bases.

SB 6 made it through the floor vote with just one major change: an amendment by Sen. Charles Schwertner, R-Georgetown, which lowered the population requirement for a county to have its cities be subject to a citizen vote on annexation from 500,000 or more to 125,000 or more.

On Tuesday, the House Urban Affairs Committee heard testimony from city officials on a broad swath of local control issues, including annexation. The mayors of San Antonio, San Marcos, and Plano each denounced proposals similar to SB 6.

John Thomaides, the mayor of San Marcos, said the city was able to successfully lure Amazon to open a facility in the city after it annexed the lot and built infrastructure there.

"This project created more than 3,000 permanent full-time jobs for our residents," he said. "Without the power to annex we would not have the ability to compete for"

At the State Affairs Committee hearing Sunday on SB 6, dozens of annexation reform backers lined up to weigh in on why they support the bill. One man compared municipal annexation to the Nazi invasion of France; another compared it to Iraq’s 1990 invasion of Kuwait. One woman was visibly emotional as she spoke of how new city taxes might stretch her family’s budget too thin.

A few detractors weighed in as well — including city officials from Corpus Christi, Fort Worth, Sugar Land, San Antonio and Austin — who said annexation can be beneficial to cities and citizens alike when done properly.

“We are not the evil empire,” said Joe Zimmerman, the mayor of Sugar Land.

Emma Platoff and Andy Duehren contributed to this story.

This article originally appeared in The Texas Tribune at

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